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Left Hand Pointer

Power Operator

M[UMPS] by Example

Right Hand Pointer

Arithmetic operator 'to the power of' (**)

Introduced in the 1995 ANSI M[UMPS] language standard.

Reference   Value
2**5   32
2**3   8
-2**3   -8
16**.25   2
-32**(1/5)   -2
-2**.5   not specified
-27**(1/3)   not specified
3**2   9
2**3**4   4096
4**0.5   2
4**(-2)   .0625
27**(1/3)   3 (if 1/3 is that exact...)
2.5**2   6.25
-1**3   -1
-8**(1/3)   -2 or error

Square root:

Reference   Value
4**.5   2
2**.5   1.4142...

The standard does not (yet) define any behavior in the case of imaginary or complex results

Reference   Value
-1**.5   error or "0%1"

This should always work

Reference   Value
32**.2   2

But this depends on the precision that the implementation offers internally

Reference   Value
-32**.2   -2 (or error)
Button for 1977 Button for 1984 Button for 1990 Button for 1995 Button for MDC Button for notes Button for examples

Copyright © Standard Documents; 1977-2018 MUMPS Development Committee;
Copyright © Examples: 1995-2018 Ed de Moel;
Copyright © Annotations: 2003-2008 Jacquard Systems Research
Copyright © Annotations: 2008-2018 Ed de Moel.

The information in this page is NOT authoritative and subject to be modified at any moment.
Please consult the appropriate (draft) language standard for an authoritative definition.

Some specifications are "approved for inclusion in a future standard". Note that the MUMPS Development Committee cannot guarantee that such future standards will indeed be published.

This page most recently updated on 12-Sep-2014, 14:09:41 .

For comments, contact Ed de Moel (demoel@jacquardsystems.com)